Interview with Forensic Physician Samar Abdel azim Ahmed

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What is your professional background in forensic science?

I am an associate professor of Forensic Medicine in Ainshams University Faculty of Medicine in Egypt. I received my doctorate degree 10 years ago with honours from ASU and then proceeded to work on my educational capacity. I studied for a second Masters degree from Maastricht University and Suez Canal University in Health professions education. I then received a scholarship from ECFMG in USA for a fellowship program in Health professions education in FAIMER, Philadelphia.

What is your current job role and what does this work involve?

Currently I teach forensic Medicine to fourth year medical students together with my administrative job as the director of the Centre of Excellence in Forensic Psychiatric research. This centre is a product of a Newton Mosharafa Fund that I received from the British council and the Science Technology Development fund in Egypt to establish forensic psychiatry research trends in Egypt. At the moment I am working on establishing partnerships within the scope of forensic psychiatric service improvement.

What initially attracted you to this field of work?

I am a physician by training but I was attracted to the field of forensics mainly challenged by the importance of the service that one can offer to justice by giving a voice to the voiceless. My work as a forensic physician is mainly to advocate for those who are victimized and to prevent further injustice by uncovering the truth that can only be seen by forensics.

Can you tell us about the research you are currently involved in?

At the moment my point of focus is forensic psychiatric patients. I am indulged in studying the service offered in my country with the hope that I can import state of the art practices from the UK utilizing the cooperation agreement that I have set with them. The first part of the study is mapping the patient’s body in Egypt with special reference to the determinants of the length of their stay in the high secure wards. This requires a lot of work to establish a culture and understanding of predictors of violent behaviour. This work comes within my funded project that we have now come to call LIFE project.

Why is this work important to the field of forensic science and what do you hope to achieve by carrying out this research?

Our hope is to be able to establish guidelines to predict violent patient behaviours and thus be able to predict patients who are in need of extended stay in forensic wards. This will help in turn to reduce unnecessary length of stay of patients. By the end of this work I hope to be able to publish a white paper of effective forensic psychiatric practice as a guiding document to help in the decision making process when patients are discharged.

Do you have any words of advice for students wishing to pursue a career in your field of work?

My advice for students who want to pursue a career in forensic medicine is to specialize as early as possible. The earlier you specialize and maybe even subspecialize the quicker you grow in the field. Master your passion area and own it then try to build on it from early on. You build your name from day one in the field so build a name that goes with a specialization. It is also important to understand why you are in the field. Understand that you give bones a voice and that without you the truth will be buried indefinitely so it is important to take this calling very seriously.

Interview with Forensic Archaeologist & Researcher Amy Rattenbury

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What is your current job role and what does this involve?

By training I’m a Forensic Archaeologist but currently work as a lecturer at Wrexham Glyndwr University teaching on the BSc (Hons) in Forensic Science. My day to day job is teaching student groups across all three years of the programme in a range of subjects such as Crime Scene Investigation, Anatomy & Pathology and the Forensic Investigation of Mass Fatalities. As well as delivering the theory I set up a lot of the practical work that the students do such as fingerprinting workshops, organ dissections and simulated crime scenes that we mock up in our Crime Scene House. I also supervise a number of student research projects mainly in the area of Taphonomy which we conduct on our ‘Body Farm’

What initially attracted you to this field of work?

I had always been interested in science and particularly forensic science and initially took a degree in Forensic Biology at Staffordshire. I always imagined that I would go on to work in a laboratory or doing fingerprint comparisons until I took a module in ‘Identification of Human Remains’. This really sparked my interest in human osteology and made me pursue a MSc in Forensic Archaeology and Crime Scene Investigation at Bradford University where I found my very niche area in search and recovery of human remains. I started teaching anatomy alongside completing my MSc and found a real love for being in the classroom. It gives me an ideal role in being able to share what I’ve learnt so far whilst still being able to pursue my own research and industry related work. Looking back now I can’t imagine not being a teacher. There’s something about introducing students to concepts they had never considered before that really exciting. And sometimes they come back to you later on in their academic careers and actually end up teaching you something; that’s a really rewarding feeling.

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Can you tell us about the research you are currently involved in at Wrexham Glyndwr University?

We are really lucky here at Glyndwr to have Wales’ first and only Taphonomic Research Facility which is licensed by DEFRA. This ‘Body Farm’ allows us to conduct a number of research projects looking at decomposition which could necessarily be hosted by other universities without a dedicated, rural area in which to conduct their research. This coupled with a high calibre research lab in our Chemistry Department has really allowed both myself and students to expand research ideas. Current student projects which are out on the body farm include:

  • The effect of clandestine burial decomposition on soil chemistry and vegetation
  • How tattoo identification is effect by post mortem changes
  • A comparison of decomposition rates in fresh and stagnant water

I am also hoping to set up my own research once the temperature improves slightly and this will be looking at how oxygen deprivation (i.e. vacuum packing) affects taphonomic changes. This is a research project based on a pilot study I supervised, conducted last year by Shareei Singer at the University Centre Southend, and we hope to expand this further by looking at more samples, over a longer time frame whilst also improving the analysis methods used.

What are some of the biggest challenges in your field of work?

Teaching is a challenging role in the first place, but even more so at University level where there is an increased need to challenge students academically, and this can be particularly difficult field to get in to early in a professional career. I’m only 25 so it’s been very much a case of putting myself out there for any and every opportunity to prove myself and gain any experience I can. You really have to show not just your ability as an academic but also a drive and passion for the subject and the students. It is a highly competitive area, not only in terms of securing jobs in the first place, but then going on to conduct and publish research whilst still maintaining high quality, engaging session, for students every week. For me in particular, I find the sheer volume of books and journals I have to read, to ensure that my delivery keeps up with the speed that the area is progressing, a little daunting. But when it’s a subject that I’m passionate about, and books I would likely read anyway, it does make it easier!

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Aside from research, are you often involved in police casework or consultancy work, and what does this typically involve?

I’m not currently involved in any active police work but I did only move up to North Wales around 6 months ago. It is something that I am very keen to start and hope to build up connections in the area to so this. I do some other consultancy work in different areas of forensic search. I work quite closely with UK-K9 who are a search dog training team. They specialise in training dogs to search for a variety of forensic evidence including human remains, explosives and drugs. We are currently working to improve the use of the human remains detection dogs on water and particularly in salt water setting such as costal searches. They are also involved in a lot of cold case reviews and large scale searches which I can offer an archaeological perspective on. I have also recently taken up a consultancy position with Kenyon International Emergency Services who deal with crisis incidents world-wide. I am currently awaiting deployment but once I am called in the role could be anything from collecting evidence at aeroplane crash sites to helping with disaster victim identification during natural disaster.

Do you have any words of advice for students wishing to pursue a career in your field of work?

For students wanting to go in to the forensic science generally just make sure you have it clear in your head before you start that it isn’t going to be how you see things portrayed in the media, I wouldn’t want you to be disappointed or put off once you start the course. I would say trying to get any sort of work experience is going to be crucial. Experience is essential nowadays but still almost impossible to get in crime related areas so think outside of the box a little bit. There are lots of labs you could do placements in that, although aren’t forensic can help you to learn and demonstrate key skills. I worked in a drinking water testing lab and in a haematology lab for a little while, both of which helped learn more about preventing cross contamination. But there are lots of other areas you can volunteer in such as becoming a PCSO, the Appropriate Adult services or any other charity that deals with victims of crime or offenders.

For students wanting to become educators I would say persevere. Remember what made you so passionate about that subject in the first place and share this with you students. It’s amazing how much more progress you make once you’ve learnt to foster this positive learning and collaborative environment. The planning and the marking will get easier, I promise!

 

Follow Amy on Twitter at @amy_rattenbury

Forensics at Glyndŵr can be followed on Twitter or Facebook.

Interview with President of IsoForensics Inc., Lesley Chesson

southern-utahDifferent forms of elements–called isotopes–are found everywhere in the environment. These isotopes are incorporated into materials in varying ratios and the abundances of different isotopes thus serve as a record of the material’s formation. Analysis of a material for its distinct isotope signature can subsequently be used to reveal its history. Investigators have applied stable isotope analysis to a variety of materials of forensic interest including drugs, explosives, money, food, ivory, and human remains. For example, the isotopes in human hair protein can reveal the age of an individual, what s/he ate, and even how often (and where) s/he travelled.

What is your professional background and how did you come to be involved in IsoForensics?

I have a master’s degree in biology, with a lot of microbiology and chemistry experience. I entered the world of isotope forensics when I was hired to raise Bacillus subtilis (a cousin of the anthrax bacterium) under a variety of conditions – in liquid media, on agar plates, with different nutrients, etc. Because organisms record information about the environment in the isotopes of their tissues, the goal of this project was to develop models that allowed investigators to predict the growth conditions of a dangerous bacterium–such as anthrax–from its isotopic characteristics.

From its start in academia, IsoForensics developed into a private analytical services and research firm that explored novel forensic applications of isotope analysis. I enjoyed the challenges offered by that exploration. Since my first work on the B. subtilis project, I’ve been involved in other projects on human remains, foods and beverages, illicit drugs, and explosives.

Tell us about the work IsoForensics is involved in and what kind of clients do you typically work with?

Currently, IsoForensics provides a lot of human remains testing in unidentified decedent cases. The goal is to use the isotope records contained in hair, nails, bone, and teeth to reconstruct the travel history of individuals and provide new evidence on their origins: Were they local to the area of discovery? Had they traveled prior to death? Where might they have traveled? We work with a variety of law enforcement groups in this casework.

In addition to service work, we conduct basic and applied research through funded grants and contracts. One recent project has started to investigate the origins and ages of seized elephant ivory to understand the structure of illegal trade networks in Africa and Asia.

What are some of the most common sample types you are asked to analyse, and does anything pose a particular challenge?

In any given month, we can analyze a variety of materials – human and wildlife remains, illicit drugs, explosives, etc. One of the most challenging measurements we make is for strontium isotope ratios. There is so little strontium contained in organic materials that prep work takes place in clean lab settings. The preparation of materials for radiocarbon dating is also challenging since we must be extremely careful about contamination of “old” materials with “modern” carbon. However, these challenges are worthwhile since strontium isotopes can provide potentially useful geolocation data about materials while radiocarbon dating provides quantitative information on the “age” of materials.

Are there any areas of isotopic analysis that could benefit from further research and development?

Yes. Isotope forensics benefits from better and better models/methods for interpreting data. It’s one thing to compare isotope measurement results from sample to sample or from sample to a reference databank, but it’s another thing altogether to understand the process(es) driving isotopic variation in materials. For example, are the results we observe due to differences in TNT manufacturing process? Or coca plant physiology? Or elephant diet?

Isotope analytical techniques also change over time as better instrumentation is developed. Understanding the impact of different analysis techniques on measured isotope ratios is extremely important when comparisons are made – especially in legal settings. A major focus of the field is the standardization of practices and protocols, to generate comparable results over time and space (e.g., from lab to lab).

How has the need for isotope analysis in forensic investigations changed over the years, if at all?

The forensic application of isotope analysis has been increasing the past 10-20 years. This is partly due to changes in analytical techniques, which have made isotope ratio measurements faster and cheaper. In addition, those who could benefit most from forensic isotope data–law enforcement, regulators, etc.–have become more aware of the technique and it potential usefulness in various types of investigations. We as forensic scientists and isotope analysts can do even more to spread awareness about the technique and its many applications.

Finally, do you have any advice for students hoping to pursue a career in this field of work?

Isotope analysis is one (extremely useful!) tool in a forensic scientist’s toolbox. Having a background and training in other areas–such as anthropology, analytical chemistry, biology, biochemistry, geology, law, or statistics–can be very important when applying isotope analysis techniques and interpreting the resultant data. The field of isotope forensics is relatively small compared to some other forensic disciplines, so be sure to read papers, attend meetings, and network with scientists working in the field.

Visit the Isoforensics Inc. website for more information.

Interview with Postgraduate Researcher Winsome Lee

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What is the focus of your research at the University of Leicester?

My research focus, namely for my dissertation is a comparative study of the forensic science progression in Hong Kong over a 40 years time frame. Hong Kong is where I have been brought up, and forensic science in the city is always covered with the mysterious veil. In 1965, we had our first forensic case. Till today, more than 40 years have passed by, it will be essential to evaluate how much we had progress.

Other than the dissertation research, since my focus is on forensic anthropology and forensic archaeology, I am also doing different excavation field schools, projects,  and osteology related research with other institutions.

Why is this research important to the field of forensic science and what do you hope to achieve by carrying out this research?

Technology and forensic techniques develop in a pace that we would never catch up with. However, due to constraints, not much comparative studies have been done, as an evaluation of the progress and development of the field, on the one hand. Sadly, funding is usually not entirely willing to sponsor studies of this sort, as they are hoping for new discovery most of the time, which likely lead to over generalization of ideas. Given the fact that forensics subjects heavily to experiences and contexts. Therefore, comparative study of forensic science is something that the profession needs yet tends to be overseen usually. On the other hand, a historical comparative study like the captioned one above, shows the same model over different time frames. It allows us to see the approach or policy from a macro level, namely environmental and political factors. In hope of this research, the government and the law enforcement will make improvements of their policies and models in order to facilitate the growth and application of forensic science in Hong Kong.

What does life as a postgraduate researcher entail?

Grad school life, as we all know, is tough. It is the kind of life that you have a full plate and always do not know where to start with. A lot of time management is involved, especially when I am also working alongside the study. People say you can use the senior year of undergraduate as a postgraduate tryout, I find this mostly correct! Also, other than studying, you are constantly looking for research and publication opportunities. Every time, when we are struggling, my pals and I keep asking ourselves, “why would we do this to ourselves.” But the sense of achievement is never better when you have accomplished something and survived a semester after another.

What are your plans for after you have completed your research?

After completing the existing project in the University of Leicester, I would be looking for PhD opportunities in either bioarchaeology, or biological anthropology.

Also, I have several real life forensic projects with police and other authorities ongoing and lined up. I am all excited and looking forward to all these amazing opportunities ahead!

Do you have any advice for students hoping to pursue a position in forensic research?

Keep your mind open!

First of all, forensic science itself is a relatively broad profession. Some of my friends switched from one discipline to another after trying out things, from forensic anthropology to law, from forensic pathology to forensic photography. You never know until you have tried. So first thing will be, to grasp as many opportunities as you can, then decide.

Once you made your choice, you also have to remember that forensic scientist is a relatively narrow yet competitive profession. What I mean is that, there is only certain demand in the authorities or law enforcement for forensic experts. If no one retires, you probably will not get a job. So it is always beneficial to have a broader, or second profession focus besides forensics.

Also, it is also very important to know that not every forensic scientist is good with doing research. Some are good with applying what we have learned, rather than doing research and making new discoveries. Be open minded, and do not get frustrated! Keep in mind that, either way we are making remarkable contribution.

Follow Winsome’s blog “Traces in Bones” here.

Interview with Biological & Forensic Anthropologist Dr Geraldine Fahy

Geraldine Fahy

What is your current job role and what does this involve?

I am a lecturer in Biological/Forensic Anthropology in the Skeletal Biology Research Centre, University of Kent. During term-time I teach all aspects of Human Evolution from early fossil hominins, hunter-gatherer societies, to methodologies used to reconstruct the last common ancestor (LCA). I also convene a forensic anthropology module where I teach forensic taphonomy, excavation and recovery, disaster victim identification and biometric identification. We are in the process of developing our MSc Forensic Osteology and Field Recovery Methods which will run from Sept. 2017 which is very exciting!

What initially attracted you to this field of work?

I wanted to become a forensic anthropologist from the first time I read Kathy Reich’s debut novel, Deja Dead. Of course, fiction is fiction however by the time I started researching the topic and where I could study forensics, I loved the topic for itself, for the science and so continued. I have turned more towards analytical chemistry techniques and human evolution in recent years; however, my interest in forensics continues, and my education and employment background remains relevant, as most forensic science disciplines, including forensic anthropology, have solid foundations in science, with the ‘forensic’ aspect being related to chain-of-custody maintenance and courtroom presentation.

Can you tell us about the research you are currently involved in at the University of Kent?

I conduct research into dietary ecology and subsistence patterns of past populations using stable isotope analysis. I have previously conducted such research on a population of wild Western chimpanzees, as correlates for the LCA; however, my current research focuses on medieval dietary reconstruction from East and West Europe. I am also currently involved in a project looking at the effects of bone turnover rates on stable isotope values and am currently investigating potential stable isotope methodologies that may have future use in forensic identification.

Has your work led you to be involved in any legal investigations? If so, what did this involve?

I worked as a forensic anthropology intern at the Netherlands Forensic Institute where I looked at decomposition of muscle tissue following submersion in water for my MSc thesis. Following this I worked as a forensic anthropology intern for the UN Mission in Kosovo in 2007 where I assisted in the identification and repatriation of victims of the Yugoslavian conflict. Subsequently I worked as an Associate Forensic Expert for the UN International Independent Investigation Commission in Lebanon which involved evidence collection and cataloging in the investigation of the assassination of former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik Hariri and others.

Do you have any words of advice for students wishing to pursue a career in forensic anthropology?

Do your research but don’t be disheartened if you end up doing a different degree initially; as long as it’s not totally removed (e.g. doing a business degree when you then want to work in science) it is possible to get where you want to go without a straight path. I would advise doing as many unpaid internships as possible, this is where you gain valuable experience and make contacts for the future. Importantly realise that what you want can change as the years go by and this is fine….you may start out wanting to work constantly in the field, but then realise this is not viable for you and end up in a lab or a classroom, just go with whatever feels right for you.

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Interview with Forensic Anthropologist Dr Anna Williams

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What is your current job role and what does this involve?

I am Principal Enterprise Fellow (equivalent to Reader or Associate Professor) in Forensic Anthropology at the University of Huddersfield. My time is divided between teaching undergraduate and postgraduate students, supervising MSc and PhD students, and doing research and forensic casework. I teach on the BSc/MSci Forensic and Analytical Sciences, and the MSc in Forensic Anthropology and the MSc in Risk, Disaster and Environmental Management. Part of my role is also to engage with the public and communicate our research to lay people, including school children, interested adults and other scientists. I regularly present at academic conferences, local interest groups, Science Festivals and public events. This year, I am presenting at the Royal Society Summer Science Exhibition. I have also been featured in several TV science documentaries, and regularly consult for TV shows like Bones, Rosewood and Silent Witness. I also write a blog about my adventures in forensic anthropology.

What initially attracted you to this field of work?

I did a mixture of sciences and humanities at A Level and could never decide which I liked best, so I chose Archaeology and Anthropology as my first degree. There, I was fascinated by what you could tell about individuals by their skeletal remains, for example about hominid evolution. Then I discovered the burgeoning science of Forensic Anthropology, on a short course at Bradford University, and that was it, I was hooked! I love how you can glean all sorts of information from the smallest pieces of evidence. I have always loved logic problems, and forensic anthropology offers the most exciting puzzles. The fact that it is often confronting, challenging and disturbing, and could help to bring criminals to justice, just serves to add to its appeal for me.

Can you tell us about the research you are currently involved in at the University of Huddersfield?

I specialise in decomposition and taphonomy (the study of how bodies decay in different environments). To do this, I use an outdoor decomposition laboratory. I lead a research group currently doing research into the gases given off by decomposing cadavers (we use pigs that have died of natural causes), and comparing that to the efficiency of police dogs that are specially trained to find dead bodies. We’re also looking at how skin colour changes in surface or water environments, and trying to find ways to improve our estimation of post-mortem interval and post-mortem submersion interval. Other research is focussed on the taphonomic changes that occur to bone and teeth in hot, arid environments. I am also running a citizen science project in order to improve age estimation of unknown individuals from dental eruption. There is a webpage and online questionnaire for anyone who would like to help us build a large, modern set of tooth eruption data to see if dental eruption ages are changing.

Aside from research, are you often involved in police casework, and what does this typically involve?

Sometimes I am asked by the police to attend crime scenes or mortuaries to undertake forensic examination of decomposed or skeletonised remains. They can be either the victims of crime, or the remains of people who have gone missing. I will determine whether they are human or animal, and if they are human, I will estimate the age at death, sex, stature and ancestry of the individual(s), and try to say something about their lifestyle, disease, injury and how they died. I work in conjunction with forensic archaeologists and odontologists, as well as pathologists, to reach an identification. I also do consultancy for forensic science providers and, on occasion, a mass disaster company that helps to ‘clean up’ after disaster and repatriate the victims. I am involved in disaster victim identification and the Emergency Operations Centre.

The existence of so-called ‘body farms’ has sparked great interest in the media. Are there plans to establish such a facility in the UK? What are the primary challenges associated with this?

I believe that Human Taphonomy Facilities, or ‘Body Farms’ as they have become colloquially known, are vital for the advancement of forensic science. We owe all that we know already about human decomposition to the Forensic Anthropology Center at the University of Tennessee, and there is so much more to learn. We need to know how human conditions like diabetes, cancer, smoking and drug use affect our decomposition, which is something we cannot learn from experimenting with dead pigs. Unfortunately, a lot of the data generated by the ‘Body Farms’ in the USA and Australia are not directly relevant to forensic cases in the UK or Europe, because of the different climate, insects and scavengers. The UK is falling behind the USA and Australia by not having one of these outdoor laboratories where vital decomposition research can be done on donated cadavers. There was an attempt to establish a Body Farm in the UK in 2011, but this failed for a variety of financial and political reasons. I think the main obstacles to getting one set up in the UK are lack of funding, public awareness and rivalry between academic institutions. I hope that, in the near future, we will be able to create a facility where researchers, academics and practitioners will be able to work together to improve methods of search and recovery, post-mortem interval estimation and identification of human remains.

Do you have any words of advice for students wishing to pursue a career in forensic anthropology?

Forensic anthropology is a very competitive field, and there aren’t many jobs out there, so you need to be dedicated and determined. It can also be hard work and distressing, so decide carefully whether you want to pursue a career in it. The best way to make yourself stand out from the crowd of other applicants to jobs is to have experience, so try to get as much hands-on experience as you can. This doesn’t have to be forensic (although, of course, that would be preferable), but can be in archaeological units or museums or hospitals (or even zoos), somewhere where you can deal with human (or animal) bodies.

Images from Research

These pictures show the progression of decomposition in a small (10kg) pig. The first picture shows the pig in the fresh stage, when post-mortem interval was less than 24 hours. The second picture shows the pig in the active decay stage, 25 days later. The brown froth is decomposition fluid that has been agitated by the movement of maggots. The body was bloated with decomposition gases, but has now collapsed, and the intestines are escaping. The skin has desiccated, but the hair is still intact. The skin has darkened and become leathery in texture. The bones are becoming detached from the body.

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Surface pig 1, day 0

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Surface pig 1, day 25

 

Website: www.forensicanna.com

Twitter: @Bonegella

Also, you can follow #scentofdeath and #teamtaphonomy

Interview with Digital Forensics Expert Angus Marshall

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What is your current job role and what does this typically involve?

I’m an independent forensic computing consultant. Some people would sum it up as “gun for hire”, but the reality is that I get involved in a range of casework for law enforcement, defence solicitors and many types of organisation. Most commonly, I get called in after the standard digital investigation work has been done, so computers & handsets have been imaged and data extracted, but someone is needed to provide expert testimony or to help interpret what’s been recovered. My background in Internet computing is proving more and more useful as most devices now contain data which relates to online activities and working out what’s happened at the other end of the connection is often more important than what’s been found.

Of course, I still get situations where I am, effectively, the first responder and have to do the data capture myself too. Fortunately, I have a good selection of tools and techniques available. My links to academia and DEVCE are a big help there too, as it means I’m able to keep abreast of new ideas.

I also advise on policy matters and help set standards through my membership of the BSI Information Security group and the Forensic Science Regulator’s working group on digital evidence, and am involved with the KTN’s Forensic Science Steering Group where we advise on research topics in Forensic Science.

How did you come to be involved in this area of work?

Largely by accident. I used to be a full-time academic at the Centre for Internet Computing. One of our servers was hacked and it fell to me to investigate it. I was persuaded to write that experience up and present it at a conference. One of the audience put me forward for inclusion on a national database of advisers for the police and a few weeks after that, I found myself helping with a missing persons case which turned out to be a pretty nasty murder. The evidence in that cases involved working out a suspect’s normal pattern of activities and showing that the pattern broke on the day the murder happened, amongst other things.

What do you think are some of the most challenging aspects of your line of work?

Understanding what the real requirements are. Pretty much everyone uses a computer in some form these days so they tend to ask for specific things to be done, often what they think they’d do themselves, rather than asking for help to solve the real problems. My usual approach is to start with something like “OK, I can do that, but tell me why you think it needs to be done” and moving on from there. We often end up doing something totally different which provides a much better answer to the question that needs to be addressed.

How has the field of digital forensics changed during the time you have been involved?

Handhelds have to be the answer to that. There’s been such an explosion in the adoption of smartphones and other personal technology. Everyone has at least one, and frequently several, devices which can tell us a lot about them and their behaviours. It means we have a lot more data to try to extract and process in the limited time available.

We aren’t seeing the predicted downturn in use of conventional computers, though – so we’re dealing with increased data storage on them, and more use of the “cloud” to share data between devices as well.

Has the field of digital forensics been affected by the major changes to forensic science services in the UK in recent years?

To be honest, the digital field was never as centralised as some of the disciplines were. Most, if not all, police forces had, and still have, their own labs, backed up by a few large private sector organisations and lots more smaller providers. What we are seeing is increased pressure due to falling budgets and increasing amounts of data. The other thing that’s causing problems is the regulatory framework. There’s an inherent resistance to taking on the perceived “extra work” required to achieve accreditation and if labs don’t act now they’re going to be in trouble. Having been close to the work, and editing a couple of related ISO standards, I know that it looks bad, but the actions required can result in significant efficiency gains, cost savings and improvements in the quality of evidence.

Do you have any advice for those seeking a career in digital forensic science?

If you enjoy a challenge – go for it! But don’t get fixated on law enforcement as the only option. Our methods are used widely in corporate environments too, especially in dealing with fraud, employee misconduct, network attacks, e-discovery for civil litigation and a whole range of other activities. The law enforcement side of things is really quite a small sector and others could be easier to get into and more rewarding in the long run.

Website: http://www.n-gate.net and http://www.devce.org

Twitter: https://twitter.com/marshalla99

Angus’ book, Digital Forensics: Digital Evidence in Criminal Investigations, is available on Amazon.

 

If you’re a forensic scientist (academic or industry) or a crime scene investigator and would like to be part of this series of interviews, get in touch by emailing locardslabblog[at]gmail.com.