Interview with Forensic Taphonomist Professor Shari Forbes

What is your current job role and what does this entail?

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Forensic taphonomist Professor Shari Forbes.

I am a Canada 150 Research Chair in Forensic Thanatology and the Director of the Secure Site for Research in Thanatology (SSRT). The SSRT represents the first human taphonomy facility in Canada and is the only place in this distinct climate where we can study the process of human decomposition through body donation. My role is to lead and conduct research at this facility, specifically in the field of forensic thanatology and decomposition chemistry. This role also involves engaging collaboratively with our external partners who can benefit from the research and training we conduct at the facility, notably police, forensic services, search and rescue teams, military, human rights organisations, and anyone involved in death investigations.

What initially attracted you to your particular field of research?

I have always had a passion for science and knew that I wanted to pursue a career in a scientific field where I could clearly see the impact of my work. When I was in high school, I enjoyed reading crime novels and probably understood what forensic science entailed better than most people (this was before the advent of CSI, Bones, NCIS, etc.!). My love of science combined with my interest in criminal investigations naturally led to pursuing a career in this field. At the time, there was only one university in Australia that offered a forensic science degree so the decision of where and what to study was relatively easy. Although chemistry wasn’t my strongest subject at school, I enjoyed the degree because it applied chemistry to forensic science and in this way, I could understand how my skills would help police investigations.

Can you tell us about the research you’re currently involved in?

My research focuses on the chemical processes of soft tissue decomposition and the by-products released into the environment. This can include compounds released into air, water, soil, textiles, or anything surrounding the body. The majority of my research at the moment focuses on the release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the air to better understand the composition of decomposition odour. Although this is not pleasant work, it is very important to understand the key compounds used by cadaver-detection dogs for locating human remains. If we can identify the key VOCs and determine when they are present, we can enhance the training and success of cadaver-detection dogs in complex environments such as mass disasters.

You were heavily involved in the establishment of the Australian Facility for Taphonomic Experimental Research. What were some of the greatest challenges in this and how has the facility since developed?

It took approximately 3.5 years to establish AFTER from the day we started planning it to the day it opened in January 2016. I have since realised this is not that long compared to some of the other facilities that are currently operating but there were challenges and hurdles that we faced along the way. In Australia, establishing a human taphonomy facility essentially requires three things: 1) an organisation willing to lead and support it; 2) a body donation program; and 3) accessible land that can be used for taphonomic research. We were fortunate that the University of Technology Sydney (UTS) had these three things and we also had the financial and in-kind support of all of our partners including academic institutions, police services and forensic laboratories. Once we had this support and made the decision to proceed, we still needed to seek approval from our local council to use the land for this purpose; apply for funding to build the facility; and apply to have the facility licenced to hold human remains for the purposes of taphonomic research and training. Thankfully, everyone we engaged with was highly supportive of the facility and willing to work with us to ensure we followed all legislation and regulations. We also ensured we had a strong communication plan to raise awareness with the general public about the benefits of these facilities and how important the research is to assist in the resolution of death investigations.

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The Australian Facility for Taphonomic Experimental Research

Since opening, we have been amazed by the general interest in AFTER and the number of people wanting to donate their body. We have also increased our partnerships to benefit more police and forensic services as well as others services such as the cemetery industry. We are currently planning to provide more training opportunities, particularly relating to disaster victim recovery and identification, and to establish more AFTER facilities across Australia to better represent the diverse climates experienced across the country.

You recently left the University of Technology Sydney to relocate to Canada. How will your role and research be changing as you make this move?

I was honored to be the Director of AFTER and it was a difficult decision to leave Australia. However, I recognise the importance of these facilities and the need to establish them in other countries so when I was asked to open Canada’s first human taphonomy facility, it was an opportunity I could not turn down. My experience in Australia has already assisted greatly in establishing the facility in Quebec and we will certainly be able to open the facility much more rapidly as a result. Like in Australia, we hope it acts as a template for future facilities across Canada since this country also has very diverse climates. In reality, neither my role nor my research will change significantly. The greatest change will be the climate and its impact on the process of decomposition!

Finally, do you have any advice for young scientists eager to pursue a career in your field of work?

It sounds like a cliché, but I always encourage students to pursue a career in a field they are passionate about. If you had told me 20 years ago that I would being leading not one, but two ‘body farms’ I would never have believed it (especially after just reading Patricia Cornwell’s novel that gave these facilities that name!). But I knew I was passionate about studying a science that was deeply applied and had a clear impact on society. I had no idea where it would lead me or even if I would get a job in the field, but without that passion, I would not have been motivated to do any of the things I have done; namely: complete my degree, continue on with a PhD, do research in decomposition chemistry, and ultimately become an academic so that I could continue my passion of conducting forensic taphonomy research. So if you are going to do something for the next fifty years, make sure it is something you love doing!

Find out more on the Secure Site for Research in Thanatology website.

 

This is Part 17 of our series of interviews with forensic professionals. If you’re a forensic scientist (academic or industry) or a crime scene investigator and would like to be part of this series of interviews, get in touch by emailing locardslabblog[at]gmail.com.

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Scientist Special: Galton, Herschel & Faulds – The Competing Pioneers of Fingerprinting

Scientist Special: Galton, Herschel & Faulds – The Competing Pioneers of Fingerprinting

The use of fingerprints as a means of identification has been successfully implemented worldwide. But how did the idea of using these unique impressions in a forensic setting first come about? Many scientists are known to have been involved in the early research relating to fingerprinting, dating right back to the 1600s, but Sir Francis Galton and William Herschel are widely recognised as the real pioneers of forensic fingerprinting.

However the story actually begins with the work of another man: Henry Faulds. In the late 1880s, the Scottish physician was working in Japan in a number of roles, one of which caused him to be involved in various archaeological digs. During this time he first stumbled upon the uniqueness of fingerprints after discovering prints left behind by craftsmen in old pieces of ceramic pottery. This allegedly inspired his notion of using fingerprints to identify criminals, at which point he promptly published an article in Nature detailing his thoughts on the matter. In his manuscript, “On the Skin-Furrows of the Hand”, Faulds suggested the possibility of using fingerprints to identify individuals, however did not provide anything to support his theory other than the anecdotal evidence of his own use of fingerprints to identify the perpetrator of a break-in at his hospital. Back in the UK, Faulds shared his ideas with Scotland Yard, but they unsurprisingly had no interest in this somewhat unsupported theory. Incidentally, Faulds also shared his work with Charles Darwin. Although Darwin did not pursue the research himself, he did forward the information to his cousin, Francis Galton. At the time, nothing came of this interaction.

Shortly after Fauld’s publication in Nature, William Herschel, a British civil servant who was based in India at the time, soon published a responding letter in Nature claiming he had been using fingerprints as a means of identification for years. A very public argument over who should claim credit for this idea ensued between the two scientists which lasted for years, though the world paid little attention. There was quite simply no data to support the claims of the two men.

A couple of years later, Sir Francis Galton once again enters the picture. Now heavily involved in the field of anthropometry (the study of measurements of the human body), he began working with Herschel to gather the much-needed data necessary to support the theory of fingerprints as a means of identification. Galton’s research allowed him to collect thousands of fingerprints and ultimately conclude that fingerprints were in fact unique to the individual, could persist on a surface for years if not decades, and could be easily used to develop a system of storing and comparing prints. Galton presented his findings at the Royal Institution, sharing his and Herschel’s research in fingerprinting as a means of identification. Based on Galton’s work, the use of fingerprinting was finally considered by Parliament in 1894, and was soon implemented in criminal investigations. Galton and Herschel were now viewed as the original pioneers of forensic fingerprinting, whereas Faulds later spent years fighting to be recognised as the true founder, petitioning to academic journals, newspapers and even the Prime Minister.

In 1892, anthropologist Juan Vucetich made history by using fingerprint evidence to positively identify the culprit in a criminal case. When the children of Francisca Rojas were found murdered, Vucetich implicated Rojas when a bloody print allegedly proved she was the murderer. Since then, the study and use of fingerprints has been a fundamental aspect of forensic investigations worldwide.

References

Faulds, H. On the Skin-Furrows of the Hand. Nature, 1880, 22.

Stigler, S. M. Galton and Identification by Fingerprints. Genetics. 1995, 140(3), 857-860.

University of Glasgow. Henry Faulds. [online] Available: http://www.universitystory.gla.ac.uk/biography/?id=WH25214&type=P

Interview with Forensic Physician Samar Abdel azim Ahmed

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What is your professional background in forensic science?

I am an associate professor of Forensic Medicine in Ainshams University Faculty of Medicine in Egypt. I received my doctorate degree 10 years ago with honours from ASU and then proceeded to work on my educational capacity. I studied for a second Masters degree from Maastricht University and Suez Canal University in Health professions education. I then received a scholarship from ECFMG in USA for a fellowship program in Health professions education in FAIMER, Philadelphia.

What is your current job role and what does this work involve?

Currently I teach forensic Medicine to fourth year medical students together with my administrative job as the director of the Centre of Excellence in Forensic Psychiatric research. This centre is a product of a Newton Mosharafa Fund that I received from the British council and the Science Technology Development fund in Egypt to establish forensic psychiatry research trends in Egypt. At the moment I am working on establishing partnerships within the scope of forensic psychiatric service improvement.

What initially attracted you to this field of work?

I am a physician by training but I was attracted to the field of forensics mainly challenged by the importance of the service that one can offer to justice by giving a voice to the voiceless. My work as a forensic physician is mainly to advocate for those who are victimized and to prevent further injustice by uncovering the truth that can only be seen by forensics.

Can you tell us about the research you are currently involved in?

At the moment my point of focus is forensic psychiatric patients. I am indulged in studying the service offered in my country with the hope that I can import state of the art practices from the UK utilizing the cooperation agreement that I have set with them. The first part of the study is mapping the patient’s body in Egypt with special reference to the determinants of the length of their stay in the high secure wards. This requires a lot of work to establish a culture and understanding of predictors of violent behaviour. This work comes within my funded project that we have now come to call LIFE project.

Why is this work important to the field of forensic science and what do you hope to achieve by carrying out this research?

Our hope is to be able to establish guidelines to predict violent patient behaviours and thus be able to predict patients who are in need of extended stay in forensic wards. This will help in turn to reduce unnecessary length of stay of patients. By the end of this work I hope to be able to publish a white paper of effective forensic psychiatric practice as a guiding document to help in the decision making process when patients are discharged.

Do you have any words of advice for students wishing to pursue a career in your field of work?

My advice for students who want to pursue a career in forensic medicine is to specialize as early as possible. The earlier you specialize and maybe even subspecialize the quicker you grow in the field. Master your passion area and own it then try to build on it from early on. You build your name from day one in the field so build a name that goes with a specialization. It is also important to understand why you are in the field. Understand that you give bones a voice and that without you the truth will be buried indefinitely so it is important to take this calling very seriously.

Interview with Forensic Archaeologist & Researcher Amy Rattenbury

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What is your current job role and what does this involve?

By training I’m a Forensic Archaeologist but currently work as a lecturer at Wrexham Glyndwr University teaching on the BSc (Hons) in Forensic Science. My day to day job is teaching student groups across all three years of the programme in a range of subjects such as Crime Scene Investigation, Anatomy & Pathology and the Forensic Investigation of Mass Fatalities. As well as delivering the theory I set up a lot of the practical work that the students do such as fingerprinting workshops, organ dissections and simulated crime scenes that we mock up in our Crime Scene House. I also supervise a number of student research projects mainly in the area of Taphonomy which we conduct on our ‘Body Farm’

What initially attracted you to this field of work?

I had always been interested in science and particularly forensic science and initially took a degree in Forensic Biology at Staffordshire. I always imagined that I would go on to work in a laboratory or doing fingerprint comparisons until I took a module in ‘Identification of Human Remains’. This really sparked my interest in human osteology and made me pursue a MSc in Forensic Archaeology and Crime Scene Investigation at Bradford University where I found my very niche area in search and recovery of human remains. I started teaching anatomy alongside completing my MSc and found a real love for being in the classroom. It gives me an ideal role in being able to share what I’ve learnt so far whilst still being able to pursue my own research and industry related work. Looking back now I can’t imagine not being a teacher. There’s something about introducing students to concepts they had never considered before that really exciting. And sometimes they come back to you later on in their academic careers and actually end up teaching you something; that’s a really rewarding feeling.

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Can you tell us about the research you are currently involved in at Wrexham Glyndwr University?

We are really lucky here at Glyndwr to have Wales’ first and only Taphonomic Research Facility which is licensed by DEFRA. This ‘Body Farm’ allows us to conduct a number of research projects looking at decomposition which could necessarily be hosted by other universities without a dedicated, rural area in which to conduct their research. This coupled with a high calibre research lab in our Chemistry Department has really allowed both myself and students to expand research ideas. Current student projects which are out on the body farm include:

  • The effect of clandestine burial decomposition on soil chemistry and vegetation
  • How tattoo identification is effect by post mortem changes
  • A comparison of decomposition rates in fresh and stagnant water

I am also hoping to set up my own research once the temperature improves slightly and this will be looking at how oxygen deprivation (i.e. vacuum packing) affects taphonomic changes. This is a research project based on a pilot study I supervised, conducted last year by Shareei Singer at the University Centre Southend, and we hope to expand this further by looking at more samples, over a longer time frame whilst also improving the analysis methods used.

What are some of the biggest challenges in your field of work?

Teaching is a challenging role in the first place, but even more so at University level where there is an increased need to challenge students academically, and this can be particularly difficult field to get in to early in a professional career. I’m only 25 so it’s been very much a case of putting myself out there for any and every opportunity to prove myself and gain any experience I can. You really have to show not just your ability as an academic but also a drive and passion for the subject and the students. It is a highly competitive area, not only in terms of securing jobs in the first place, but then going on to conduct and publish research whilst still maintaining high quality, engaging session, for students every week. For me in particular, I find the sheer volume of books and journals I have to read, to ensure that my delivery keeps up with the speed that the area is progressing, a little daunting. But when it’s a subject that I’m passionate about, and books I would likely read anyway, it does make it easier!

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Aside from research, are you often involved in police casework or consultancy work, and what does this typically involve?

I’m not currently involved in any active police work but I did only move up to North Wales around 6 months ago. It is something that I am very keen to start and hope to build up connections in the area to so this. I do some other consultancy work in different areas of forensic search. I work quite closely with UK-K9 who are a search dog training team. They specialise in training dogs to search for a variety of forensic evidence including human remains, explosives and drugs. We are currently working to improve the use of the human remains detection dogs on water and particularly in salt water setting such as costal searches. They are also involved in a lot of cold case reviews and large scale searches which I can offer an archaeological perspective on. I have also recently taken up a consultancy position with Kenyon International Emergency Services who deal with crisis incidents world-wide. I am currently awaiting deployment but once I am called in the role could be anything from collecting evidence at aeroplane crash sites to helping with disaster victim identification during natural disaster.

Do you have any words of advice for students wishing to pursue a career in your field of work?

For students wanting to go in to the forensic science generally just make sure you have it clear in your head before you start that it isn’t going to be how you see things portrayed in the media, I wouldn’t want you to be disappointed or put off once you start the course. I would say trying to get any sort of work experience is going to be crucial. Experience is essential nowadays but still almost impossible to get in crime related areas so think outside of the box a little bit. There are lots of labs you could do placements in that, although aren’t forensic can help you to learn and demonstrate key skills. I worked in a drinking water testing lab and in a haematology lab for a little while, both of which helped learn more about preventing cross contamination. But there are lots of other areas you can volunteer in such as becoming a PCSO, the Appropriate Adult services or any other charity that deals with victims of crime or offenders.

For students wanting to become educators I would say persevere. Remember what made you so passionate about that subject in the first place and share this with you students. It’s amazing how much more progress you make once you’ve learnt to foster this positive learning and collaborative environment. The planning and the marking will get easier, I promise!

 

Follow Amy on Twitter at @amy_rattenbury

Forensics at Glyndŵr can be followed on Twitter or Facebook.

Interview with President of IsoForensics Inc., Lesley Chesson

southern-utahDifferent forms of elements–called isotopes–are found everywhere in the environment. These isotopes are incorporated into materials in varying ratios and the abundances of different isotopes thus serve as a record of the material’s formation. Analysis of a material for its distinct isotope signature can subsequently be used to reveal its history. Investigators have applied stable isotope analysis to a variety of materials of forensic interest including drugs, explosives, money, food, ivory, and human remains. For example, the isotopes in human hair protein can reveal the age of an individual, what s/he ate, and even how often (and where) s/he travelled.

What is your professional background and how did you come to be involved in IsoForensics?

I have a master’s degree in biology, with a lot of microbiology and chemistry experience. I entered the world of isotope forensics when I was hired to raise Bacillus subtilis (a cousin of the anthrax bacterium) under a variety of conditions – in liquid media, on agar plates, with different nutrients, etc. Because organisms record information about the environment in the isotopes of their tissues, the goal of this project was to develop models that allowed investigators to predict the growth conditions of a dangerous bacterium–such as anthrax–from its isotopic characteristics.

From its start in academia, IsoForensics developed into a private analytical services and research firm that explored novel forensic applications of isotope analysis. I enjoyed the challenges offered by that exploration. Since my first work on the B. subtilis project, I’ve been involved in other projects on human remains, foods and beverages, illicit drugs, and explosives.

Tell us about the work IsoForensics is involved in and what kind of clients do you typically work with?

Currently, IsoForensics provides a lot of human remains testing in unidentified decedent cases. The goal is to use the isotope records contained in hair, nails, bone, and teeth to reconstruct the travel history of individuals and provide new evidence on their origins: Were they local to the area of discovery? Had they traveled prior to death? Where might they have traveled? We work with a variety of law enforcement groups in this casework.

In addition to service work, we conduct basic and applied research through funded grants and contracts. One recent project has started to investigate the origins and ages of seized elephant ivory to understand the structure of illegal trade networks in Africa and Asia.

What are some of the most common sample types you are asked to analyse, and does anything pose a particular challenge?

In any given month, we can analyze a variety of materials – human and wildlife remains, illicit drugs, explosives, etc. One of the most challenging measurements we make is for strontium isotope ratios. There is so little strontium contained in organic materials that prep work takes place in clean lab settings. The preparation of materials for radiocarbon dating is also challenging since we must be extremely careful about contamination of “old” materials with “modern” carbon. However, these challenges are worthwhile since strontium isotopes can provide potentially useful geolocation data about materials while radiocarbon dating provides quantitative information on the “age” of materials.

Are there any areas of isotopic analysis that could benefit from further research and development?

Yes. Isotope forensics benefits from better and better models/methods for interpreting data. It’s one thing to compare isotope measurement results from sample to sample or from sample to a reference databank, but it’s another thing altogether to understand the process(es) driving isotopic variation in materials. For example, are the results we observe due to differences in TNT manufacturing process? Or coca plant physiology? Or elephant diet?

Isotope analytical techniques also change over time as better instrumentation is developed. Understanding the impact of different analysis techniques on measured isotope ratios is extremely important when comparisons are made – especially in legal settings. A major focus of the field is the standardization of practices and protocols, to generate comparable results over time and space (e.g., from lab to lab).

How has the need for isotope analysis in forensic investigations changed over the years, if at all?

The forensic application of isotope analysis has been increasing the past 10-20 years. This is partly due to changes in analytical techniques, which have made isotope ratio measurements faster and cheaper. In addition, those who could benefit most from forensic isotope data–law enforcement, regulators, etc.–have become more aware of the technique and it potential usefulness in various types of investigations. We as forensic scientists and isotope analysts can do even more to spread awareness about the technique and its many applications.

Finally, do you have any advice for students hoping to pursue a career in this field of work?

Isotope analysis is one (extremely useful!) tool in a forensic scientist’s toolbox. Having a background and training in other areas–such as anthropology, analytical chemistry, biology, biochemistry, geology, law, or statistics–can be very important when applying isotope analysis techniques and interpreting the resultant data. The field of isotope forensics is relatively small compared to some other forensic disciplines, so be sure to read papers, attend meetings, and network with scientists working in the field.

Visit the Isoforensics Inc. website for more information.

Interview with Digital Forensics Expert Angus Marshall

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What is your current job role and what does this typically involve?

I’m an independent forensic computing consultant. Some people would sum it up as “gun for hire”, but the reality is that I get involved in a range of casework for law enforcement, defence solicitors and many types of organisation. Most commonly, I get called in after the standard digital investigation work has been done, so computers & handsets have been imaged and data extracted, but someone is needed to provide expert testimony or to help interpret what’s been recovered. My background in Internet computing is proving more and more useful as most devices now contain data which relates to online activities and working out what’s happened at the other end of the connection is often more important than what’s been found.

Of course, I still get situations where I am, effectively, the first responder and have to do the data capture myself too. Fortunately, I have a good selection of tools and techniques available. My links to academia and DEVCE are a big help there too, as it means I’m able to keep abreast of new ideas.

I also advise on policy matters and help set standards through my membership of the BSI Information Security group and the Forensic Science Regulator’s working group on digital evidence, and am involved with the KTN’s Forensic Science Steering Group where we advise on research topics in Forensic Science.

How did you come to be involved in this area of work?

Largely by accident. I used to be a full-time academic at the Centre for Internet Computing. One of our servers was hacked and it fell to me to investigate it. I was persuaded to write that experience up and present it at a conference. One of the audience put me forward for inclusion on a national database of advisers for the police and a few weeks after that, I found myself helping with a missing persons case which turned out to be a pretty nasty murder. The evidence in that cases involved working out a suspect’s normal pattern of activities and showing that the pattern broke on the day the murder happened, amongst other things.

What do you think are some of the most challenging aspects of your line of work?

Understanding what the real requirements are. Pretty much everyone uses a computer in some form these days so they tend to ask for specific things to be done, often what they think they’d do themselves, rather than asking for help to solve the real problems. My usual approach is to start with something like “OK, I can do that, but tell me why you think it needs to be done” and moving on from there. We often end up doing something totally different which provides a much better answer to the question that needs to be addressed.

How has the field of digital forensics changed during the time you have been involved?

Handhelds have to be the answer to that. There’s been such an explosion in the adoption of smartphones and other personal technology. Everyone has at least one, and frequently several, devices which can tell us a lot about them and their behaviours. It means we have a lot more data to try to extract and process in the limited time available.

We aren’t seeing the predicted downturn in use of conventional computers, though – so we’re dealing with increased data storage on them, and more use of the “cloud” to share data between devices as well.

Has the field of digital forensics been affected by the major changes to forensic science services in the UK in recent years?

To be honest, the digital field was never as centralised as some of the disciplines were. Most, if not all, police forces had, and still have, their own labs, backed up by a few large private sector organisations and lots more smaller providers. What we are seeing is increased pressure due to falling budgets and increasing amounts of data. The other thing that’s causing problems is the regulatory framework. There’s an inherent resistance to taking on the perceived “extra work” required to achieve accreditation and if labs don’t act now they’re going to be in trouble. Having been close to the work, and editing a couple of related ISO standards, I know that it looks bad, but the actions required can result in significant efficiency gains, cost savings and improvements in the quality of evidence.

Do you have any advice for those seeking a career in digital forensic science?

If you enjoy a challenge – go for it! But don’t get fixated on law enforcement as the only option. Our methods are used widely in corporate environments too, especially in dealing with fraud, employee misconduct, network attacks, e-discovery for civil litigation and a whole range of other activities. The law enforcement side of things is really quite a small sector and others could be easier to get into and more rewarding in the long run.

Website: http://www.n-gate.net and http://www.devce.org

Twitter: https://twitter.com/marshalla99

Angus’ book, Digital Forensics: Digital Evidence in Criminal Investigations, is available on Amazon.

 

If you’re a forensic scientist (academic or industry) or a crime scene investigator and would like to be part of this series of interviews, get in touch by emailing locardslabblog[at]gmail.com.

Scientist Special: William R. Maples

“That’s how I feel about the skeletons in my laboratory. These have tales to tell us, even though they are dead. It is up to me, the forensic anthropologist, to catch their mute cries and whispers, and to interpret them for the living, as long as I am able”. – William R. Maples in Dead Men Do Tell Tales.

William R. Maples (Source: http://anthro.ufl.edu)

William R. Maples (Source: http://anthro.ufl.edu)

As an internationally-renowned forensic anthropologist, William R. Maples travelled the world to offer his expertise to over a thousand cases, fighting to not only identify skeletal remains but also uncover how they died.

Born on 7th August 1937 in Dallas, Texas, Maples developed an early fascination with anthropology and death investigation, allegedly when a deputy sheriff showed him autopsy photos of the infamous duo Bonnie and Clyde. After receiving his Master’s Degree in 1962, he spent a short time working in Kenya studying primates, later being awarded his PhD in anthropology from the University of Texas in 1967. He began his career with a number of teaching positions at Western Michigan University and the University of Florida at Gainesville, later taking on the role of Curator of Physical Anthropology at the Florida State Museum. He was President of the American Board of Forensic Anthropology and a fellow of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

During the 1970’s, Maples began offering his expertise to legal death investigations, aiding in the identification of victims and conclusion of cause of death, working with a number of police departments. This further extended to working alongside the U.S Army’s Central Identification Laboratory in Hawaii, examining the remains of military personnel.

Throughout his career he applied his expertise and guidance to hundreds of cases, some of which involved particularly high profile investigations. Perhaps his most famous case is that of the investigation of the Romanov family. The Romanovs were members of a Russian royal family with Nicholas II as Tsar. However in 1918 he was forced to give up his throne and he and his family were arrested and brutally executed by the Bolsheviks, a group of Russian communists who would soon become the dominant political power in Russia. In the early 1990s the bodies of the Romanov family were recovered from a mass grave, with William Maples leading a team of forensic experts in the investigation. They ultimately concluded that the remains were in fact those of the members of the Romanov family, with DNA testing confirming this.

In 1991 Maples was also part of the team examining the remains of former President Zachary Taylor, rumoured to have been murdered by arsenic poisoning. A former humanities professor at the University of Florida, Clara Rising, called for further tests to be carried out, convincing Maples to lend a hand and examine the remains. His investigation aimed to put these claims to rest and ultimately concluded that the cause of death had been gastroenteritis.

In 1994, Maples was part of the team that laid to rest a vicious murder case from the 1960s. In 1963, civil rights leader Medgar Evers was assassinated as he returned home one day. When taken to hospital, he was at first refused entry because of his race, and later died, bitterly just hours after President John F. Kennedy delivered a speech in support of civil rights. White supremacist and member of the Ku Klux Klan Byron De La Beckwith was arrested under suspicion of his murder, but managed to escape justice. But 30 years later when the case was re-opened, William Maples helped exhume the remains of Evers for an autopsy, eventually leading to the long overdue conviction of Beckwith.

This scrapes the surface of Maples’ involvement in death investigations, which extends to the examination of the remains of Joseph Merrick (the ‘Elephant Man’), the investigation of the 1996 ValuJet 592 disaster, and the study of the remains of victims of the Gainesville student murders.

In 1995 he was diagnosed with brain cancer and, although continuing to work for two more years despite this, passed away on 27th February 1997 at the age of 59 years.

You can read William Maple’s book, Dead Men Do Tell Tales: The Strange and Fascinating Cases of a Forensic Anthropologist, to gain a further insight into his life and career.

References

Herszenhorn, D. M. 1997. William. R. Maples, 59, Dies; Anthropologist of Big Crimes. [online] Available: http://www.nytimes.com/1997/03/01/us/william-r-maples-59-dies-anthropologist-of-big-crimes.html

Maples Center for Forensic Medicine. W. R. Maples. [online] Available: http://maples-center.ufl.edu/organizations/people/william-r-maples

Maples, W. R. Browning, M. 2010. Dead Men Do Tell Tales: The Strange and Fascinating Cases of a Forensic Anthropologist. California: Doubleday.

Williams, R. C. 2015. The Forensic Historian: Using Science to Reexamine the Past. Abingdon: Routledge.