Interview with Forensic Archaeologist & Researcher Amy Rattenbury

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What is your current job role and what does this involve?

By training I’m a Forensic Archaeologist but currently work as a lecturer at Wrexham Glyndwr University teaching on the BSc (Hons) in Forensic Science. My day to day job is teaching student groups across all three years of the programme in a range of subjects such as Crime Scene Investigation, Anatomy & Pathology and the Forensic Investigation of Mass Fatalities. As well as delivering the theory I set up a lot of the practical work that the students do such as fingerprinting workshops, organ dissections and simulated crime scenes that we mock up in our Crime Scene House. I also supervise a number of student research projects mainly in the area of Taphonomy which we conduct on our ‘Body Farm’

What initially attracted you to this field of work?

I had always been interested in science and particularly forensic science and initially took a degree in Forensic Biology at Staffordshire. I always imagined that I would go on to work in a laboratory or doing fingerprint comparisons until I took a module in ‘Identification of Human Remains’. This really sparked my interest in human osteology and made me pursue a MSc in Forensic Archaeology and Crime Scene Investigation at Bradford University where I found my very niche area in search and recovery of human remains. I started teaching anatomy alongside completing my MSc and found a real love for being in the classroom. It gives me an ideal role in being able to share what I’ve learnt so far whilst still being able to pursue my own research and industry related work. Looking back now I can’t imagine not being a teacher. There’s something about introducing students to concepts they had never considered before that really exciting. And sometimes they come back to you later on in their academic careers and actually end up teaching you something; that’s a really rewarding feeling.

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Can you tell us about the research you are currently involved in at Wrexham Glyndwr University?

We are really lucky here at Glyndwr to have Wales’ first and only Taphonomic Research Facility which is licensed by DEFRA. This ‘Body Farm’ allows us to conduct a number of research projects looking at decomposition which could necessarily be hosted by other universities without a dedicated, rural area in which to conduct their research. This coupled with a high calibre research lab in our Chemistry Department has really allowed both myself and students to expand research ideas. Current student projects which are out on the body farm include:

  • The effect of clandestine burial decomposition on soil chemistry and vegetation
  • How tattoo identification is effect by post mortem changes
  • A comparison of decomposition rates in fresh and stagnant water

I am also hoping to set up my own research once the temperature improves slightly and this will be looking at how oxygen deprivation (i.e. vacuum packing) affects taphonomic changes. This is a research project based on a pilot study I supervised, conducted last year by Shareei Singer at the University Centre Southend, and we hope to expand this further by looking at more samples, over a longer time frame whilst also improving the analysis methods used.

What are some of the biggest challenges in your field of work?

Teaching is a challenging role in the first place, but even more so at University level where there is an increased need to challenge students academically, and this can be particularly difficult field to get in to early in a professional career. I’m only 25 so it’s been very much a case of putting myself out there for any and every opportunity to prove myself and gain any experience I can. You really have to show not just your ability as an academic but also a drive and passion for the subject and the students. It is a highly competitive area, not only in terms of securing jobs in the first place, but then going on to conduct and publish research whilst still maintaining high quality, engaging session, for students every week. For me in particular, I find the sheer volume of books and journals I have to read, to ensure that my delivery keeps up with the speed that the area is progressing, a little daunting. But when it’s a subject that I’m passionate about, and books I would likely read anyway, it does make it easier!

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Aside from research, are you often involved in police casework or consultancy work, and what does this typically involve?

I’m not currently involved in any active police work but I did only move up to North Wales around 6 months ago. It is something that I am very keen to start and hope to build up connections in the area to so this. I do some other consultancy work in different areas of forensic search. I work quite closely with UK-K9 who are a search dog training team. They specialise in training dogs to search for a variety of forensic evidence including human remains, explosives and drugs. We are currently working to improve the use of the human remains detection dogs on water and particularly in salt water setting such as costal searches. They are also involved in a lot of cold case reviews and large scale searches which I can offer an archaeological perspective on. I have also recently taken up a consultancy position with Kenyon International Emergency Services who deal with crisis incidents world-wide. I am currently awaiting deployment but once I am called in the role could be anything from collecting evidence at aeroplane crash sites to helping with disaster victim identification during natural disaster.

Do you have any words of advice for students wishing to pursue a career in your field of work?

For students wanting to go in to the forensic science generally just make sure you have it clear in your head before you start that it isn’t going to be how you see things portrayed in the media, I wouldn’t want you to be disappointed or put off once you start the course. I would say trying to get any sort of work experience is going to be crucial. Experience is essential nowadays but still almost impossible to get in crime related areas so think outside of the box a little bit. There are lots of labs you could do placements in that, although aren’t forensic can help you to learn and demonstrate key skills. I worked in a drinking water testing lab and in a haematology lab for a little while, both of which helped learn more about preventing cross contamination. But there are lots of other areas you can volunteer in such as becoming a PCSO, the Appropriate Adult services or any other charity that deals with victims of crime or offenders.

For students wanting to become educators I would say persevere. Remember what made you so passionate about that subject in the first place and share this with you students. It’s amazing how much more progress you make once you’ve learnt to foster this positive learning and collaborative environment. The planning and the marking will get easier, I promise!

 

Follow Amy on Twitter at @amy_rattenbury

Forensics at Glyndŵr can be followed on Twitter or Facebook.

Interview with Biological & Forensic Anthropologist Dr Geraldine Fahy

Geraldine Fahy

What is your current job role and what does this involve?

I am a lecturer in Biological/Forensic Anthropology in the Skeletal Biology Research Centre, University of Kent. During term-time I teach all aspects of Human Evolution from early fossil hominins, hunter-gatherer societies, to methodologies used to reconstruct the last common ancestor (LCA). I also convene a forensic anthropology module where I teach forensic taphonomy, excavation and recovery, disaster victim identification and biometric identification. We are in the process of developing our MSc Forensic Osteology and Field Recovery Methods which will run from Sept. 2017 which is very exciting!

What initially attracted you to this field of work?

I wanted to become a forensic anthropologist from the first time I read Kathy Reich’s debut novel, Deja Dead. Of course, fiction is fiction however by the time I started researching the topic and where I could study forensics, I loved the topic for itself, for the science and so continued. I have turned more towards analytical chemistry techniques and human evolution in recent years; however, my interest in forensics continues, and my education and employment background remains relevant, as most forensic science disciplines, including forensic anthropology, have solid foundations in science, with the ‘forensic’ aspect being related to chain-of-custody maintenance and courtroom presentation.

Can you tell us about the research you are currently involved in at the University of Kent?

I conduct research into dietary ecology and subsistence patterns of past populations using stable isotope analysis. I have previously conducted such research on a population of wild Western chimpanzees, as correlates for the LCA; however, my current research focuses on medieval dietary reconstruction from East and West Europe. I am also currently involved in a project looking at the effects of bone turnover rates on stable isotope values and am currently investigating potential stable isotope methodologies that may have future use in forensic identification.

Has your work led you to be involved in any legal investigations? If so, what did this involve?

I worked as a forensic anthropology intern at the Netherlands Forensic Institute where I looked at decomposition of muscle tissue following submersion in water for my MSc thesis. Following this I worked as a forensic anthropology intern for the UN Mission in Kosovo in 2007 where I assisted in the identification and repatriation of victims of the Yugoslavian conflict. Subsequently I worked as an Associate Forensic Expert for the UN International Independent Investigation Commission in Lebanon which involved evidence collection and cataloging in the investigation of the assassination of former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik Hariri and others.

Do you have any words of advice for students wishing to pursue a career in forensic anthropology?

Do your research but don’t be disheartened if you end up doing a different degree initially; as long as it’s not totally removed (e.g. doing a business degree when you then want to work in science) it is possible to get where you want to go without a straight path. I would advise doing as many unpaid internships as possible, this is where you gain valuable experience and make contacts for the future. Importantly realise that what you want can change as the years go by and this is fine….you may start out wanting to work constantly in the field, but then realise this is not viable for you and end up in a lab or a classroom, just go with whatever feels right for you.

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Interview with Forensic Anthropologist Dr Anna Williams

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What is your current job role and what does this involve?

I am Principal Enterprise Fellow (equivalent to Reader or Associate Professor) in Forensic Anthropology at the University of Huddersfield. My time is divided between teaching undergraduate and postgraduate students, supervising MSc and PhD students, and doing research and forensic casework. I teach on the BSc/MSci Forensic and Analytical Sciences, and the MSc in Forensic Anthropology and the MSc in Risk, Disaster and Environmental Management. Part of my role is also to engage with the public and communicate our research to lay people, including school children, interested adults and other scientists. I regularly present at academic conferences, local interest groups, Science Festivals and public events. This year, I am presenting at the Royal Society Summer Science Exhibition. I have also been featured in several TV science documentaries, and regularly consult for TV shows like Bones, Rosewood and Silent Witness. I also write a blog about my adventures in forensic anthropology.

What initially attracted you to this field of work?

I did a mixture of sciences and humanities at A Level and could never decide which I liked best, so I chose Archaeology and Anthropology as my first degree. There, I was fascinated by what you could tell about individuals by their skeletal remains, for example about hominid evolution. Then I discovered the burgeoning science of Forensic Anthropology, on a short course at Bradford University, and that was it, I was hooked! I love how you can glean all sorts of information from the smallest pieces of evidence. I have always loved logic problems, and forensic anthropology offers the most exciting puzzles. The fact that it is often confronting, challenging and disturbing, and could help to bring criminals to justice, just serves to add to its appeal for me.

Can you tell us about the research you are currently involved in at the University of Huddersfield?

I specialise in decomposition and taphonomy (the study of how bodies decay in different environments). To do this, I use an outdoor decomposition laboratory. I lead a research group currently doing research into the gases given off by decomposing cadavers (we use pigs that have died of natural causes), and comparing that to the efficiency of police dogs that are specially trained to find dead bodies. We’re also looking at how skin colour changes in surface or water environments, and trying to find ways to improve our estimation of post-mortem interval and post-mortem submersion interval. Other research is focussed on the taphonomic changes that occur to bone and teeth in hot, arid environments. I am also running a citizen science project in order to improve age estimation of unknown individuals from dental eruption. There is a webpage and online questionnaire for anyone who would like to help us build a large, modern set of tooth eruption data to see if dental eruption ages are changing.

Aside from research, are you often involved in police casework, and what does this typically involve?

Sometimes I am asked by the police to attend crime scenes or mortuaries to undertake forensic examination of decomposed or skeletonised remains. They can be either the victims of crime, or the remains of people who have gone missing. I will determine whether they are human or animal, and if they are human, I will estimate the age at death, sex, stature and ancestry of the individual(s), and try to say something about their lifestyle, disease, injury and how they died. I work in conjunction with forensic archaeologists and odontologists, as well as pathologists, to reach an identification. I also do consultancy for forensic science providers and, on occasion, a mass disaster company that helps to ‘clean up’ after disaster and repatriate the victims. I am involved in disaster victim identification and the Emergency Operations Centre.

The existence of so-called ‘body farms’ has sparked great interest in the media. Are there plans to establish such a facility in the UK? What are the primary challenges associated with this?

I believe that Human Taphonomy Facilities, or ‘Body Farms’ as they have become colloquially known, are vital for the advancement of forensic science. We owe all that we know already about human decomposition to the Forensic Anthropology Center at the University of Tennessee, and there is so much more to learn. We need to know how human conditions like diabetes, cancer, smoking and drug use affect our decomposition, which is something we cannot learn from experimenting with dead pigs. Unfortunately, a lot of the data generated by the ‘Body Farms’ in the USA and Australia are not directly relevant to forensic cases in the UK or Europe, because of the different climate, insects and scavengers. The UK is falling behind the USA and Australia by not having one of these outdoor laboratories where vital decomposition research can be done on donated cadavers. There was an attempt to establish a Body Farm in the UK in 2011, but this failed for a variety of financial and political reasons. I think the main obstacles to getting one set up in the UK are lack of funding, public awareness and rivalry between academic institutions. I hope that, in the near future, we will be able to create a facility where researchers, academics and practitioners will be able to work together to improve methods of search and recovery, post-mortem interval estimation and identification of human remains.

Do you have any words of advice for students wishing to pursue a career in forensic anthropology?

Forensic anthropology is a very competitive field, and there aren’t many jobs out there, so you need to be dedicated and determined. It can also be hard work and distressing, so decide carefully whether you want to pursue a career in it. The best way to make yourself stand out from the crowd of other applicants to jobs is to have experience, so try to get as much hands-on experience as you can. This doesn’t have to be forensic (although, of course, that would be preferable), but can be in archaeological units or museums or hospitals (or even zoos), somewhere where you can deal with human (or animal) bodies.

Images from Research

These pictures show the progression of decomposition in a small (10kg) pig. The first picture shows the pig in the fresh stage, when post-mortem interval was less than 24 hours. The second picture shows the pig in the active decay stage, 25 days later. The brown froth is decomposition fluid that has been agitated by the movement of maggots. The body was bloated with decomposition gases, but has now collapsed, and the intestines are escaping. The skin has desiccated, but the hair is still intact. The skin has darkened and become leathery in texture. The bones are becoming detached from the body.

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Surface pig 1, day 0

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Surface pig 1, day 25

 

Website: www.forensicanna.com

Twitter: @Bonegella

Also, you can follow #scentofdeath and #teamtaphonomy